And ISIS is not alone in Mosul either. In a telephone interview, Abdul Jalil, a prominent member of the Jaysh al-Tariqa al-Naqshbandia militia – also known as the Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order or JRTN – confirmed this. The Sunni Muslim Naqshbandi movement – which has links to Saddam Hussein’s former ruling Baath party – calls for an ongoing resistance against “Safavid” occupation of Iraq and is classified as a terrorist organization by many.

Jalil told NIQASH there were also other groups fighting alongside ISIS in the province of Ninawa beside his own. These included the military wing of the former Baath party and former officers in the Iraqi army under Saddam Hussein as well as tribal groups from the province. They were all fighting under the command of a body he called the Supreme Military Council.